IL-4

Analysis of granuloma formation in double cytokine-deficient mice reveals a central role for IL-10 in polarizing both T helper cell 1- and T helper cell 2-type cytokine responses in vivo.

In response to i.v.-injected eggs of Schistosoma mansoni, normal mice develop a dominant type 2 response, whereas IL-10-deficient animals generate a mixed type 1/type 2 cytokine profile and show reduced pulmonary granuloma formation. IL-4-deficient …

Interleukin-4 protects against a genetically linked lupus-like autoimmune syndrome.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) provides support for humoral immune responses through upregulation of T helper (Th) type 2 cell differentiation, but it is not known whether IL-4 promotes antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus …

Somatic hypermutation occurs in B cells of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-, CD23-, interleukin-4-, IgD- and CD30-deficient mouse mutants.

Interleukin 10 but not interleukin 4 is a natural suppressant of cutaneous inflammatory responses.

We have examined the role of endogenously produced interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-10 in the regulation of inflammatory and immune reactions in the skin. In these experiments, irritant and contact hypersensitivity (CH) responses were elicited in mice with …

Antiviral immune responses in mice deficient for both interleukin-2 and interleukin-4.

Antiviral immune responses of mice lacking interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-4 or both IL-2 and IL-4 (IL-2/4) were compared by using different viruses. Primary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) were …

Lymphoid development in mice with a targeted deletion of the interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain.

The interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2R gamma) is a component of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, and IL-15. Mutations in IL-2R gamma in man appear responsible for the X chromosome-linked immunodeficiency SCIDX1, characterized by a defect in …

Induction of interleukin 4 (IL-4) expression in T helper (Th) cells is not dependent on IL-4 from non-Th cells.

Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is essential for the induction of immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses in mice. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that IL-4 derived from non T helper (Th) cells, in particular from mast cells and basophils, may be essential for …

Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in interleukin-4-transgenic mice by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Interleukin (IL)-4-transgenic mice were used as a model system to study the consequences of low levels of IL-4 expression for the expression of other cytokines examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For this purpose, a plasmid was …

Generation and analysis of interleukin-4 deficient mice.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) promotes the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it directs the immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch to IgG1 and IgE. Mice homozygous for a mutation that inactivates the IL-4 gene were …

Retroviral interleukin 4 gene transfer into an interleukin 4-dependent cell line results in autocrine growth but not in tumorigenicity.

A retroviral vector has been constructed containing the mouse interleukin 4 (IL 4) gene under the transcriptional control of the thymidine kinase promoter. Infection of the IL 4-dependent T cell line CT4S by the thymidine kinase IL 4 construct …