BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunoglobulin (Ig) A secretion into the intestinal lumen is an important immune mechanism of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. B cells proliferate and differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells (PC) within lymphoid organs then migrate directly into the intestinal lamina propria. We aimed to elucidate the in vivo role of the mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), which is constitutively expressed in the GI-associated lymphoid tissue, in B-cell migration. METHODS: We generated MAdCAM-1-deficient mice (MAdCAM(Delta)) and evaluated the B-cell compartment of the GI-associated lymphoid tissue. We also assessed PC migration to the small intestine and the intestinal immune response after oral immunization. RESULTS: In MAdCAM(Delta) mice, the size of Peyer's patches was drastically reduced, compared with that of wild-type mice; this difference was detectable by 3 days after birth, indicating that MAdCAM-1 is dispensable for embryonic Peyer's patch development but mediates recruitment of lymphocytes into this lymphoid organ at later stages. Moreover, antigen-specific, IgA- positive PC were severely compromised in their migration to the small intestine; accordingly, there was a reduced number of IgA-secreting PC in the lamina propria of the small intestine. The MAdCAM(Delta) mice were unable to mount a normal intestinal IgA response after oral immunization with cholera toxin. CONCLUSION: These data provide in vivo evidence that MAdCAM-1 is required for the localization and function of IgA-secreting PC in the intestine.