EUMORPHIA (European Union Mouse Research for Public Health and Industrial Application) is a research program involved in developing new approaches in phenotyping, mutagenesis, and informatics to improve characterization of mouse models for understanding human physiology and disease. Secondary screen experiments include the development of assays to identify mice with altered susceptibility or resistance to infections. In this context we developed a new model and established a standard operating procedure for the experimental infection of mice with Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica. In contrast with previous studies that dealt with high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, we used the low-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strain E40 to analyze differences in the immune response of four strains of inbred mice (BALB/c, C3H/HeN, 129P2, C57BL/6) after oral infection. The determination of colony-forming units in Peyer's patches and histologic analysis supported the observations that BALB/c are less able to ameliorate the infection within 21 days. The immune defense of C57BL/6 mice against Yersinia was the most effective resulting in a nearly complete elimination of bacteria after 21 days. C3H/HeN and 129P2 were intermediate. Analysis of serum immunoglobulins (Ig) by Luminex showed a significant increase of IgG2b levels 21 days after infection in all four inbred strains. The other immunoglobulins remained nearly constant. Our infection model discriminates between the efficiency of an infection at an early time point (3 days) and immunity at a later time point (21 days). It is furthermore an appropriate model to characterize genetic differences in resistance and immunity of inbred and mutant mouse lines.